Output factor measurements with multiple detectors in CyberKnife® Robotic Radiosurgery System

Muthukumaran Manavalan, Manigandan Durai, Ganesh Narayanasamy, Sotirios Stathakis, Henry Finlay Godson, Vikraman Subramani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Aim: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the output factor (OF) of a CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System with eight different small field detectors and validate with Technical Report Series (TRS) report 483. Background: Accurate dosimetry of CyberKnife system is limited due to the challenges in small field dosimetry. OF is a vital dosimetric parameter used in the photon beam modeling and any error would affect the dose calculation accuracy. Materials and Methods: In this study, the OF was measured with eight different small-field detectors for the 12 IRIS collimators at 800 mm SAD setup at 15 mm depth. The detectors used were PTW 31016 PinPoint 3D, IBA PFD shielded diode, IBA EFD unshielded diode, IBA SFD unshielded diode (stereotactic), PTW 60008 shielded diode, PTW 60012 unshielded diode, PTW 60018 unshielded diode (stereotactic), and PTW 60019 CVD diamond detector. OF was obtained after correcting for field output correction factors from IAEA TRS No. 483. Results: The field OFs in CyberKnife are derived from the measured data by applying the correction factors from Table 23 in TRS 483 for the eight small field detectors. These field OFs matched within 2% of peer-reviewed published values. The range and standard deviation showed a decreasing trend with collimator diameter. Conclusion: The field OF obtained after applying the appropriate correction factor from TRS 483 matched well with the peer-reviewed published OFs. The inter-detector variation showed a decreasing trend with increasing collimator field size. This study gives physicists confidence in measuring field OFs while using small field detectors mentioned in this work.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)870-874
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021


  • CyberKnife
  • Output factor
  • Small field dosimetry
  • Stereotactic field

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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