Outpatient patterns of care and longitudinal intensity of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected drug users

Christine Laine, Walter W. Hauck, Barbara J. Turner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE. To examine the association of drug users' outpatient patterns of care with subsequent intensity of antiretroviral therapy (ART). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Annual types of ART in 8897 New York State Medicaid drug users who were prescribed ART for ≥6 months in 1996 or 1997 were determined. From pharmacy claims, intensity was classified from changes in annual type of ART in 1996 to 97 and 1997 to 98 as: optimal (ie, on or starting highly active ART [HAART]), acceptable (ie, on or starting 2+ non-HAART drugs), or suboptimal (ie, none, <6 months, one drug, or change from HAART to non-HAART). In both 1996 and 1997, outpatient pattern of care was defined including regular medical care, regular drug treatment, both, and neither and categories of visits for HIV-focused care. Predictors of adequate ART intensity were examined among the group with suboptimal or adequate intensity (model 1) and predictors of optimal ART intensity among the group with adequate or optimal intensity (model 2). RESULTS. The adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of acceptable ART intensity in model 1 were increased for those with HIV-focused care (AOR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.6,3.3 for 4+ visits 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5, 1.9 for 1-3 visits) or regular medical care (AOR, 1.2 [1.1, 1.4]. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of optimal intensity in model 2 were increased for those with regular substance abuse care with (AOR, 1.4 [1.2, 1.7]) or without (AOR, 1.2 [1.1, 1.4]) regular medical care whereas HIV-focused visits had no effect. CONCLUSION. Care from an HIV-focused provider was predictive of a drug user receiving at least adequate intensity of ART for more than 2 years whereas regular drug abuse treatment, especially with regular medical care, was associated with optimal intensity of ART.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)976-995
Number of pages20
JournalMedical Care
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2002


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Drug abuse
  • HIV infection
  • Medicaid
  • Medical care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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