Outcomes among Patients Treated with Renal Replacement Therapy during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Single-Center Retrospective Study

David N. Dado, Craig R. Ainsworth, Sarah B. Thomas, Benjamin Huang, Lydia C. Piper, Valerie G. Sams, Andriy Batchinsky, Benjamin D. Morrow, Anthony P. Basel, Robert J. Walter, Phillip E. Mason, Kevin K. Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are modalities used in critically ill patients suffering organ failure and metabolic derangements. Although the effects of CRRT have been extensively studied, the impact of simultaneous CRRT and ECMO is less well described. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence and the impact of CRRT on outcomes of patients receiving ECMO. Methods: A single center, retrospective chart review was conducted for patients receiving ECMO therapy over a 6-year period. Patients who underwent combined ECMO and CRRT were compared to those who underwent ECMO alone. Intergroup -statistical comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests. Logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors for mortality. Results: The demographic and clinical data of 92 patients who underwent ECMO at our center were reviewed including primary diagnosis, indications for and mode of ECMO support, illness severity, oxygenation index, vasopressor requirement, and presence of acute kidney injury. In those patients that required ECMO with CRRT, we reviewed urine output prior to initiation, modality used, prescribed dose, net fluid balance after 72 h, requirement of renal replacement therapy (RRT) at discharge, and use of diuretics prior to RRT initiation. Our primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge. During the study period, 48 patients required the combination of ECMO with CRRT. Twenty-nine of these patients survived to hospital discharge. Of the 29 survivors, 6 were dialysis dependent at hospital discharge. The mortality rate was 39.5% with combined ECMO/CRRT compared to 31.4% among those receiving ECMO alone (p = 0.074). Of those receiving combined therapy, nonsurvivors were more likely to have a significantly positive net fluid balance at 72 h (p = 0.001). A multivariate linear regression analysis showed net positive fluid balance and increased age were independently associated with mortality. Conclusions: Use of CRRT is prevalent among patients undergoing ECMO, with over 50% of our patient population receiving combination therapy. Fluid balance appears to be an important variable associated with outcomes in this cohort. Rates of renal recovery and overall survival were higher compared to previously published reports among those requiring combined ECMO/CRRT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)341-347
Number of pages7
JournalBlood Purification
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acute kidney injury
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Continuous renal replacement therapy
  • Extracorporeal life support
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Hematology

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