Osteogenic response of human MSCs and osteoblasts to hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanostructured titanium implant surfaces

Ethan M. Lotz, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Simon Berner, Barbara D. Boyan, Zvi Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Microstructured implant surfaces created by grit blasting and acid etching titanium (Ti) support osseointegration. This effect is further enhanced by storing in aqueous solution to retain hydrophilicity, but this also leads to surface nanostructure formation. The purpose of this study was to assess the contributions of nanostructures on the improved osteogenic response of osteoblast lineage cells to hydrophilic microstructured Ti. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and normal human osteoblasts (NHOsts) were cultured separately on non-nanostructured/hydrophobic (SLA), nanostructured/hydrophilic (modSLA), or nanostructured/hydrophobic (SLAnano) Ti surfaces. XPS showed elevated carbon levels on SLA and SLAnano compared to modSLA. Contact angle measurements indicated only modSLA was hydrophilic. Confocal laser microscopy revealed minor differences in mean surface roughness. SEM showed the presence of nanostructures on modSLA and SLAnano. MSCs and NHOst cells exhibited similar morphology on the substrates and osteoblastic differentiation and maturation were greatest on modSLA. These results suggest that when the appropriate microstructure is present, hydrophilicity may play a greater role in stimulating MSC and NHOst osteoblastic differentiation and maturation than the presence of nanostructures generated during storage in an aqueous environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3137-3148
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • hydrophilic
  • nanostructures
  • osteoblast
  • titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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