Ophthalmologic Findings in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Caroline Maria Zimmermann, Shonar Singh, Nur Cardakli, Courtney Lynn Kraus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ophthalmologic findings in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and compare these findings in eyes with and without optic pathway gliomas (OPGs). We carried out a retrospective chart review of children with NF1. We recorded demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations of disease, and ophthalmologic findings including visual acuity, intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, visual field testing, and optical coherence tomography findings. Ophthalmologic findings were examined for the cohort for initial and final appointments. These findings were also compared between eyes with and without OPGs. The study included 119 participants with 238 total eyes. The most common clinical manifestations of NF1 in this cohort were café au lait macules (98%), axillary or inguinal freckling (91%), Lisch nodules (66%), and cutaneous neurofibromas (57%). Thirty-seven participants had imaging that allowed evaluation for choroidal abnormalities, and 28 (76%) had choroidal lesions. Twenty-seven participants (23%) had OPGs, and 44 eyes were affected. On initial assessment, eyes with OPGs had worse visual acuity. On final examination, eyes with OPGs were more likely to have a worse visual acuity and a thinner generalised retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness, inferior RNFL thickness, and temporal RNFL thickness. This study provides longitudinal follow-up of children affected by NF1 with and without OPGs. Eyes with OPGs were found to be associated with worse visual acuity and thinner RNFLs overall on final testing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-26
Number of pages8
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Neurofibromatosis type 1
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • optic pathway glioma
  • optical coherence tomography
  • paediatric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Ophthalmology


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