Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Kidney Disease: A Potential Bidirectional Relationship?

Bisher Abuyassin, Kumar Sharma, Najib T. Ayas, Ismail Laher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Scopus citations

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high mortality rates and heavy economic and social burdens. Nearly 10% of the United States population suffer from CKD, with fatal outcomes increased by 16-40 times even before reaching end-stage renal disease. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is between 3% and 7% in the general population, and has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades along with increased rates of obesity. However, the prevalence of OSA is much greater in patients with CKD. In addition, aggressive dialysis improves OSA. The current literature suggests a bidirectional association between CKD and OSA through a number of potential pathological mechanisms, which increase the possibility of both diseases being possible risk factors for each other. CKD may lead to OSA through a variety of mechanisms, including alterations in chemorefl ex responsiveness, pharyngeal narrowing due to fl uid overload, and accumulation of uremic toxins. It is also being increasingly recognized that OSA can also accelerate loss of kidney function. Moreover, animals exposed to intermittent hypoxia suffer histopathological renal damage. Potential mechanisms of OSA-associated renal dysfunction include renal hypoxia, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and increased oxidative stress. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 845.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)915-924
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
Volume11
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Endothelium
  • Hypertension
  • Kidney function
  • Oxidative stress
  • Sleep apnea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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