Reviewing the areas of controversy related to the obstetric management of women with GDM, we are unfortunately unable to provide significant refinement of the recommendations agreed upon after the Fourth International Workshop-Conference due to the lack of properly controlled and powered clinical studies in this area since 1997. In the area of the need for antenatal fetal surveillance in women with milder degrees of GDM, we may be able to draw indirect conclusions from ongoing cohort studies that will include large numbers of women. In the area of optimal timing and mode of delivery to avoid fetal injury, large well-controlled prospective studies do not currently exist and are urgently needed. In addition, refinement of fetal and pelvic imaging techniques to more accurately identify the maternal-fetal pairs most likely to benefit from avoiding vaginal delivery, and the more widespread availability of these technologies, may also prove to be of benefit in the obstetric management of women with GDM.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing