Obesity and periodontitis are not associated in pregnant women

Isaac S. Gomes-Filho, Josicélia Estrela Tuy Batista, Soraya Castro Trindade, Johelle de Santana Passos-Soares, Eneida de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Teresinha Silveira da Costa, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy Figueiredo, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Costa, Luis Fernando Fernandes Adan, Gessica Santana Orrico, Edla Carvalho Lima Porto, Rodolfo Macedo Cruz Pimenta, Frank A. Scannapieco, Peter Michael Loomer, Simone Seixas da Cruz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate an association between obesity (exposure) and periodontitis (outcome) in pregnant women. Background: This association was investigated and only five studies were identified as showing a positive association. However, some of these studies had limitations such as reduced sample sizes, inadequate exposure criteria and outcome measures, which question the internal validity of these investigations. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 644 pregnant women of the public health service of the municipality of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. Data were obtained by collecting of socioeconomic-demographic information, health behavior, health conditions, and reproductive history through an interview. Obesity was evaluated using body mass index adjusted for gestational age and expected weight gain. The diagnosis of periodontitis followed two criteria: (a) Center for Disease Prevention and Control and American Academy of Periodontology (CDC/AAP); (b) Gomes-Filho et al (2018) using criterion that also evaluated bleeding upon probing; Prevalence ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals were obtained by Poisson regression analysis. Results: In accordance with the outcome diagnostic criterion, the frequency of periodontitis was 17.24% (Gomes-Filho et al) and 66.92% (CDC/AAP). The participants were classified as low weight (19.72%), adequate weight (42.39%), overweight (24.84%), and obesity (13.04%), based on the exposure diagnostic criterion. The low weight and overweight groups were excluded from the data analysis, giving a final sample of 357 pregnant women. The association between obesity in pregnant women and periodontitis was not statistically significant, after adjusting for confounders such as age, schooling level, alcoholic beverage consumption, alimentary and nutritional orientation, urinary infection, and dental flossing. Conclusions: The findings showed a high frequency of periodontitis, obesity, and overweight in the studied population but no association between obesity and periodontitis in pregnant women was found.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-84
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Periodontal Research
Volume55
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • obesity
  • oral health
  • periodontitis
  • pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics

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