This article summarizes strategies being investigated in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Progress has been made toward improving the delivery method of intravesical agents. Intravesical therapy is limited by the amount of time that the agent remains in contact with the bladder. Bladder cancer is considered to be responsive to immune therapy. Thus, many novel approaches are immune-based therapies and include cancer vaccines, use of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) subcomponents, and checkpoint inhibitors. Finally, access to bladder mucosa via direct catheterization into the bladder via the urethra has enabled unique strategies for delivery of cancer therapy including viral- or plasmid-based gene therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas