Noninvasive Testing and Surrogate Markers in Invasive Fungal Diseases

George R. Thompson, David R. Boulware, Nathan C. Bahr, Cornelius J. Clancy, Thomas S. Harrison, Carol A. Kauffman, Thuy Le, Marisa H. Miceli, Eleftherios Mylonakis, M. Hong Nguyen, Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, Thomas F. Patterson, John R. Perfect, Andrej Spec, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, Peter G. Pappas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Invasive fungal infections continue to increase as at-risk populations expand. The high associated morbidity and mortality with fungal diseases mandate the continued investigation of novel antifungal agents and diagnostic strategies that include surrogate biomarkers. Biologic markers of disease are useful prognostic indicators during clinical care, and their use in place of traditional survival end points may allow for more rapid conduct of clinical trials requiring fewer participants, decreased trial expense, and limited need for long-term follow-up. A number of fungal biomarkers have been developed and extensively evaluated in prospective clinical trials and small series. We examine the evidence for these surrogate biomarkers in this review and provide recommendations for clinicians and regulatory authorities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofac112
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022


  • diagnosis
  • fungal infections
  • mycology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Oncology


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