According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention approximately 1.4 million Americans suffer some form of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) each year (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, 1999; Langlois, Rutland-Brown, & Thomas, 2004). Such injuries occur by falling (28%), involvement in motor vehicle accidents (MVA) (20%), being struck by or against objects (including vehicles) (19%), and physical assault (11%) (Langlois et al.). As of the millennium's closing in the USA, TBI resulted in approximately 50,000 deaths, 235,000 hospitalizations, and 1.1 million emergency room visits per annum. As a result of TBI, at least 5.3 million Americans currently need long-term assistance performing activities of daily living (Thurman, Alverson, Dunn, Guerrero, & Sniezek, 1999), often requiring substantial community, financial, and governmental resources. For instance, estimates of direct medical costs and other indirect costs (e.g., loss of work productivity, etc.) total well over $60 billion in the United States annually (Finkelstein, Corso, & Miller, 2006). Mild TBI (MTBI) accounts for 80% of all TBI cases (Sohlberg & Mateer, 2001) and has also been dubbed the signature wound of the war on terrorism in military personnel (Association of the United States Army, 2008). There is a reported high rate of MTBI in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans, ranging from 12 to 15% (Hoge et al., 2008; Schneiderman, Braver, & Kang, 2008). However, the number of individuals who suffer a MTBI and fail to present to an emergency medical department or do not identify themselves on the battlefield remains unknown and understudied.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Detection of Malingering during Head Injury Litigation|
|Number of pages||30|
|ISBN (Print)||146140441X, 9781461404415|
|State||Published - Nov 1 2012|
ASJC Scopus subject areas