Non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health challenge associated with a disproportionately high burden of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular disease and death. This review summarizes the rationale, clinical evidence and practical implementation for non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (nsMRAs), a drug class now approved and recommended for patients with T2D and CKD at risk of cardiorenal disease progression. Three nsMRAs (finerenone, esaxerenone and apararenone) have been evaluated but finerenone is currently the only approved nsMRA for this indication. Two large-scale, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 studies evaluated finerenone added to a maximally tolerated dose of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Over >2 years of treatment, finerenone was associated with a significant reduction in composite endpoints of renal and cardiovascular outcomes versus placebo. Esaxerenone or apararenone have both shown significant improvements in albuminuria versus placebo. In general, nsMRAs were well tolerated. Hyperkalaemia was the most notable treatment-related adverse event and could generally be managed through serum potassium monitoring and dose adjustments. The nsMRAs are now an important component of recommended treatment for CKD associated with T2D, providing a significant reduction in the risk of cardiorenal progression beyond what can be achieved with glucose and blood pressure control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)417-430
Number of pages14
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2024


  • apararenone
  • cardiorenal protection
  • chronic
  • diabetes mellitus, type 2
  • esaxerenone
  • finerenone
  • renal insufficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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