The presence of HIV-2 in Nigeria has been confirmed serologically, but not genetically. To determine the frequency of HIV-2 infections and the dynamics between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in 35 of 36 Nigerian states, 420 blood samples were collected in 1999. Antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 were detected by EIA and seroreactivity was confirmed with the INNO-LIA HIV Line Assay. The frequency of HIV-2 was 4.3% (18 of 420), with 3.8% (16 of 420) HIV-1 and HIV-2 (HIV-1/2) heterotypic and 0.5% (2 of 420) HIV-2 homotypic infections. The presence of HIV-2 subtype B in the two monotypic HIV-2 infections and subtype A in 11 (68.8%) of 16 HIV-1/2 dually seropositive samples was established by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. HIV-2 subtype B viruses were not found in any of the HIV-1/2 dual infections, and HIV-2 subtype A strains were not identified in either of the two monotypic HIV-2 infections. Since our sample size was small and represented only convenience samples, larger randomized studies will be needed to better understand the dynamics of infection between HIV-1 and different HIV-2 subtypes and to determine whether significant biological differences exist among the HIV-2 subtypes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases