Neurostimulation therapies in depression: A review of new modalities

L. B. Marangell, M. Martinez, R. A. Jurdi, H. Zboyan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations


Objective: In response to an increased understanding of the neurobiology of severe psychiatric disorders, new therapeutic modalities are entering clinical practice that involve the direct stimulation of the brain. Method: We provide a review of published literature regarding the clinical use of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) in psychiatric disorders, with an emphasis on treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Results: Vagus nerve stimulation is approved for use in both the EU and US for TRD. TMS has been approved for TRD in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the European Union and Israel, but not yet in the United States. DBS remains in the early stages of investigation. Conclusion: While additional studies are clearly warranted, treatments that directly stimulate the brain appear to hold great therapeutic promise for severe psychiatric disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)174-181
Number of pages8
JournalActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Neurostimulation
  • Psychiatry
  • Review
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Vagus nerve stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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