Yawning is a common behavioral event that is observed in humans, as well as other mammals, birds and reptiles. In humans, yawning often occurs just before bed and upon waking up, and is also associated with tedious or boring situations. Although the physiologic roles of yawning have yet to be fully elucidated, the past 50 years of research has led to a much greater understanding of the neuropharmacologic regulation of yawning. While many of the early studies concluded that yawning was primarily driven by changes in cholinergic neurotransmission, we now know that numerous neurotransmitters and neurohormones are involved in the mediation of yawning, including acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, oxytocin, GABA, opioids, adrenergics, nitric oxide, as well as the proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides ACTH and α-MSH. Furthermore, antagonist interaction studies have clearly defined at least 3 distinct neural pathways involved in the induction of yawning, as well as the hierarchical order through which these different neurotransmitter systems interact to regulate yawning. The following sections will discuss the state of knowledge for each of the major neurotransmitters and neurohormones involved in the regulation of yawning, their interactions with one another, and their place in the hierarchical organization of yawning.