The development of percutaneous nephrostomy has laid the foundation for a major advance in the treatment of urolithiasis: the percutaneous removal of renal and ureteral calculi (i.e., nephrolithotony). With the use of a variety of instruments, calculi can be either removed intact or, if too large, fragmented in situ and then extracted. The method has wide applicability; more than 90% of all upper urinary tract calculi can be successfully treated. Length of hospitalization and costs are comparable to or less than those for open surgery; however, the period of convalescence is only 2-7 days. Continued advances in fluoroscopic technology and endoscopic instrumentation will enable the urologic surgeon to treat the majority of urinary tract conditions using endourologic techniques.
- Calculi, percutaneous treatment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging