National estimates of HIV-related symptom prevalence from the HIV cost and services utilization study

Wm Christopher Mathews, J. Allen McCutchan, Steven Asch, Barbara J. Turner, Allen L. Gifford, Kiyoshi Kuromiya, Julie Brown, Martin F. Shapiro, Samuel A. Bozzette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the prevalence, bothersomeness, and variation of HIV-related symptoms in a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care and (2) to evaluate new aggregate measures of symptom frequency and bothersomeness. METHODS. Beginning in January 1996, 76% of a multistage national probability sample of 4,042 HIV-infected adults receiving medical care were interviewed. Participants endorsed the presence and degree of bothersomeness of 14 HIV-related symptoms during the preceding 6 months. Sex-standardized symptom number and bothersomeness indices were constructed. After sampling weights were incorporated, symptom distributions were compared according to selected characteristics by analysis of variance and multiple linear regression modeling. RESULTS. Prevalence of specific symptoms in the reference population was as follows: fever/ night sweats, 51.1%; diarrhea, 51%; nausea/ anorexia, 49.8%; dysesthesias, 48.9%; severe headache, 39.3%; weight loss, 37.1%; vaginal symptoms, 35.6% of women; sinus symptoms, 34.8%; eye trouble, 32.4%; cough/dyspnea, 30.4%; thrush, 27.3%; rash, 24.3%; oral pain, 24.1%; and Kaposi's sarcoma, 4%. Aggregate measures were reliable (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.75) and demonstrated construct validity when compared with other measures of disease severity. After adjustment for CD4 count, both symptom number and bothersomeness varied significantly (P <0.05) by teaching status of care setting, exposure/risk group, educational achievement, sex, annual income, employment, and insurance category. However, the magnitude of variation was small. Symptoms were greatest in women and injection drug users, as well as in persons with lower educational levels, lower income, and Medicare enrollment or those who were followed up at teaching hospitals. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence and bothersomeness of HIV-related symptoms are substantial and vary by setting of care and patient characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)750-761
Number of pages12
JournalMedical Care
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV infection
  • Prevalence
  • Survey research
  • Symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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