Mycoplasma pneumoniae community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin uses a novel KELED sequence for retrograde transport and subsequent cytotoxicity

Kumaraguruparan Ramasamy, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Krishnan Manickam, Lavanya Pandranki, Alexander B. Taylor, P. John Hart, Joel B. Baseman, Thirumalai R Kannan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that causes respiratory illnesses in humans, including pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It has also been directly linked to reactive airway disease, asthma, and extrapulmonary pathologies. During its colonization, M. pneumoniae expresses a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin designated community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin. CARDS toxin persists and localizes in the airway in CAP patients, asthmatics, and trauma patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Although CARDS toxin binds to specific cellular receptors, is internalized, and induces hyperinflammation, histopathology, mucus hyperplasia, and other airway injury, the intracellular trafficking of CARDS toxin remains unclear. Here, we show that CARDS toxin translocates through early and late endosomes and the Golgi complex and concentrates at the perinuclear region to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using ER-targeted SNAP-tag, we confirmed the association of CARDS toxin with the ER and determined that CARDS toxin follows the retrograde pathway. In addition, we identified a novel CARDS toxin amino acid fingerprint, KELED, that is required for toxin transport to the ER and subsequent toxin-mediated cytotoxicity. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a leading cause of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among children and adults in the United States, synthesizes a 591-amino-acid ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating protein, designated community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin. CARDS toxin alone is sufficient to induce and mimic major inflammatory and histopathological phenotypes associated with M. pneumoniae infection in rodents and primates. In order to elicit its ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating activities, CARDS toxin must bind to host cell receptors, be internalized via clathrin-mediated pathways, and subsequently be transported to specific intracellular organelles. Here, we demonstrate how CARDS toxin utilizes its unique KELED sequence to exploit the retrograde pathway machinery to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and fulfill its cyto-pathic potential. The knowledge generated from these studies may provide important clues to understand the mode of action of CARDS toxin and develop interventions that reduce or eliminate M. pneumoniae-associated airway and extrapulmonary pathologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere01663-17
JournalmBio
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Adenosine Diphosphate
Pneumonia
Pathology
Amino Acids
Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Clathrin
Pharyngitis
Endosomes
Cytotoxins
Wounds and Injuries
Dermatoglyphics
Golgi Apparatus
Mucus
Organelles

Keywords

  • CARDS toxin
  • KDEL
  • KELED
  • Mycoplasma
  • Retrograde transport
  • Vacuolation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Virology

Cite this

Mycoplasma pneumoniae community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin uses a novel KELED sequence for retrograde transport and subsequent cytotoxicity. / Ramasamy, Kumaraguruparan; Balasubramanian, Sowmya; Manickam, Krishnan; Pandranki, Lavanya; Taylor, Alexander B.; Hart, P. John; Baseman, Joel B.; Kannan, Thirumalai R.

In: mBio, Vol. 9, No. 1, e01663-17, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ramasamy, Kumaraguruparan ; Balasubramanian, Sowmya ; Manickam, Krishnan ; Pandranki, Lavanya ; Taylor, Alexander B. ; Hart, P. John ; Baseman, Joel B. ; Kannan, Thirumalai R. / Mycoplasma pneumoniae community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin uses a novel KELED sequence for retrograde transport and subsequent cytotoxicity. In: mBio. 2018 ; Vol. 9, No. 1.
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abstract = "Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that causes respiratory illnesses in humans, including pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis, and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It has also been directly linked to reactive airway disease, asthma, and extrapulmonary pathologies. During its colonization, M. pneumoniae expresses a unique ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin designated community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin. CARDS toxin persists and localizes in the airway in CAP patients, asthmatics, and trauma patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. Although CARDS toxin binds to specific cellular receptors, is internalized, and induces hyperinflammation, histopathology, mucus hyperplasia, and other airway injury, the intracellular trafficking of CARDS toxin remains unclear. Here, we show that CARDS toxin translocates through early and late endosomes and the Golgi complex and concentrates at the perinuclear region to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using ER-targeted SNAP-tag, we confirmed the association of CARDS toxin with the ER and determined that CARDS toxin follows the retrograde pathway. In addition, we identified a novel CARDS toxin amino acid fingerprint, KELED, that is required for toxin transport to the ER and subsequent toxin-mediated cytotoxicity. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a leading cause of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among children and adults in the United States, synthesizes a 591-amino-acid ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating protein, designated community-acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin. CARDS toxin alone is sufficient to induce and mimic major inflammatory and histopathological phenotypes associated with M. pneumoniae infection in rodents and primates. In order to elicit its ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating activities, CARDS toxin must bind to host cell receptors, be internalized via clathrin-mediated pathways, and subsequently be transported to specific intracellular organelles. Here, we demonstrate how CARDS toxin utilizes its unique KELED sequence to exploit the retrograde pathway machinery to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and fulfill its cyto-pathic potential. The knowledge generated from these studies may provide important clues to understand the mode of action of CARDS toxin and develop interventions that reduce or eliminate M. pneumoniae-associated airway and extrapulmonary pathologies.",
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