Mutational analysis of AXIN2, MSX1, and PAX9 in two Mexican oligodontia families

Y. D. Mu, Z. Xu, C. I. Contreras, J. S. McDaniel, K. J. Donly, S. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


The genes for axin inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2), msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), and paired box gene 9 (PAX9) are involved in tooth root formation and tooth development. Mutations of the AXIN2, MSX1, and PAX9 genes are associated with non-syndromic oligodontia. In this study, we investigated phenotype and AXIN2, MSX1, and PAX9 gene variations in two Mexican families with non-syndromic oligodontia. Individuals from two families underwent clinical examinations, including an intra-oral examination and panoramic radiograph. Retrospective data were reviewed, and peripheral blood samples were collected. The exons and exon-intronic boundaries of the AXIN2, MSX1, and PAX9 genes were sequenced and analyzed. Protein and messenger RNA structures were predicted using bioinformative software programs. Clinical and oral examinations revealed isolated non-syndromic oligodontia in the two Mexican families. The average number of missing teeth was 12. The sequence analysis of exons and exon-intronic regions of AXIN2, MSX1, and PAX9 revealed 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including seven in AXIN2, two in MSX1, and three in PAX9. One novel SNP of MSX1, c.476T>G (Leu159Arg), was found in all of the studied patients in the families. MSX1 Leu159Arg and PAX9 Ala240Pro change protein and messenger RNA structures. Our findings suggested that a combined reduction of MSX1 and PAX9 gene dosages increased the risk for oligodontia in the Mexican families, as in vivo investigation has indicated that interaction between Msx1 and Pax9 is required for tooth development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4446-4458
Number of pages13
JournalGenetics and Molecular Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 10 2013


  • AXIN2
  • MSX1
  • Oligodontia
  • PAX9
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology


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