The complex interplay between caspase-8 and receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase RIP 3 (RIPK3) driving extrinsic apoptosis and necroptosis is not fully understood. Murine cytomegalovirus triggers both apoptosis and necroptosis in infected cells; however, encoded inhibitors of caspase-8 activity (M36) and RIP3 signaling (M45) suppress these antiviral responses. Here, we report that this virus activates caspase-8 in macrophages to trigger apoptosis that gives rise to secondary necroptosis. Infection with double-mutant ΔM36/M45mutRHIM virus reveals a signaling pattern in which caspase- 8 activates caspase-3 to drive apoptosis with subsequent RIP3- dependent activation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) leading to necroptosis. This combined cell death signaling is highly inflammatory, greater than either apoptosis induced by ΔM36 or necroptosis induced by M45mutRHIM virus. IL-6 production by macrophages is dramatically increased during double-mutant virus infection and correlates with faster antiviral responses in the host. Collaboratively, M36 and M45 target caspase-8 and RIP3 pathways together to suppress this proinflammatory cell death. This study reveals the effect of antiviral programmed cell death pathways on inflammation, shows that caspase-8 activation may go hand-inhand with necroptosis in macrophages, and revises current understanding of independent and collaborative functions of M36 and M45 in blocking apoptotic and necroptotic cell death responses.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Mar 28 2017|
- Cell death
- RIP3 kinase
ASJC Scopus subject areas