More forks on the road to replication stress recovery

Chris Allen, Amanda K. Ashley, Robert Hromas, Jac A. Nickoloff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

102 Scopus citations

Abstract

High-fidelity replication of DNA, and its accurate segregation to daughter cells, is critical for maintaining genome stability and suppressing cancer. DNA replication forks are stalled by many DNA lesions, activating checkpoint proteins that stabilize stalled forks. Stalled forks may eventually collapse, producing a broken DNA end. Fork restart is typically mediated by proteins initially identified by their roles in homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In recent years, several proteins involved in DSB repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) have been implicated in the replication stress response, including DNA-PKcs, Ku, DNA Ligase IV-XRCC4, Artemis, XLF and Metnase. It is currently unclear whether NHEJ proteins are involved in the replication stress response through indirect (signaling) roles, and/or direct roles involving DNA end joining. Additional complexity in the replication stress response centers around RPA, which undergoes significant post-translational modification after stress, and RAD52, a conserved HR protein whose role in DSB repair may have shifted to another protein in higher eukaryotes, such as BRCA2, but retained its role in fork restart. Most cancer therapeutic strategies create DNA replication stress. Thus, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of replication stress response proteins and pathways to improve cancer therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4-12
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of molecular cell biology
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 16 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Cancer therapy
  • DNA repair
  • Genome instability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology

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