Monokine regulation of human immunodeficiency virus-1 expression in a chronically infected human T cell clone

K. A. Clouse, D. Powell, I. Washington, G. Poli, K. Strebel, W. Farrar, P. Barstad, J. Kovacs, A. S. Fauci, T. M. Folks

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    162 Scopus citations


    A T cell clone (ACH-2) derived from T cells infected with HIV-1 was found to produce HIV-1 in response to stimulation with a monokine-enriched supernatant prepared by culturing human monocyte/macrophages with bacterial LPS (LPS-M∅ SN). Monokine induction of ACH-2 cells resulted in augmented virus production reflected by an increase in reverse transcriptase activity and in the synthesis of all major viral proteins. Examination of the cells by indirect immunofluorescence revealed that 10 to 15% of uninduced cells constitutively expressed HIV proteins, whereas 100% showed positive immunofluorescence in response to LPS-M∅ SN. This induction of virus by LPS-M∅ SN resulted in approximately a 100-fold increase of infectious virus production over uninduced ACH-2 cells. LPS alone could not induce HIV-1 expression, whereas LPS-M∅ SN resulted in the greatest virus expression. Cell separation studies confirmed the source of the inducing factor(s) to be cells bearing the mature monocyte/macrophage marker, Leu M3. Biochemical fractionation of the LPS-M∅ SN suggested that one or more factors, having apparent M(r) of approximately 45 kDa, were involved in this induction. Absorption of the LPS-M∅ SN with immunoaffinity gels specific for human TNF-α was shown to completely remove the HIV inducing activity for the ACH-2 cell line.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)431-438
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Immunology
    Issue number2
    StatePublished - 1989

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Immunology and Allergy
    • Immunology


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