Monkeypox: considerations for the understanding and containment of the current outbreak in non-endemic countries

Jorge Quarleri, M. Victoria Delpino, Verónica Galvan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The neglected and rare zoonotic disease caused by monkeypox virus (MPV) has recently spread widely, resulting in the largest known monkeypox outbreak outside of Africa, where it is endemic. MPV belongs to the Poxviridae family, genus Orthopoxvirus. At least two different clades have been identified, each having different fatality rates but recent cases are all phylogenetically related to the West African clade. MPV is transmitted directly by either person-to-person, -animal, or virus-contaminated fomite contact. The disease is often self-limited, and clinical symptoms include fever, skin lesions, and lymphadenopathies. At present, no deaths have been associated with the current outbreak. MPV DNA detection using molecular techniques is recommended for diagnosis. At least two approved drugs for antiviral therapy are available in the USA. Two different vaccines, including the vaccine used in the past for smallpox eradication and a new formulation more recently approved based on a live but non-replicating virus, are available that provide immunity to MPV. These and other clinical and public health considerations pertaining to the recent monkeypox outbreaks together with aspects of MPV biology are discussed in this article.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2095-2103
Number of pages9
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • Antiviral therapy
  • Clinical presentation
  • Diagnosis
  • Epidemiology
  • Monkeypox
  • Orthopoxvirus
  • Outbreak
  • Prophylaxis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • veterinary (miscalleneous)
  • Complementary and alternative medicine
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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