Molecular genetic testing does not improve the detection of fluoroquinolone resistance before transrectal prostate biopsy

Michael A. Liss, Harshit Garg, Evgeni V. Sokurenko, Jan E. Patterson, Brian L. Wickes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQR) Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes transrectal prostate biopsy infections. We seek to further identify fluoroquinolones resistance by the incorporation of genetic profiling to influence antibiotic selection for transrectal prostate biopsy and whether the addition of this genetic testing could improve the prediction of FQR detection at the time of biopsy. Materials and methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, rectal swabs were collected within 30 days of an upcoming prostate biopsy. These swabs were sent for phenotypic and genotypic assessment to predict FQR on the day of the biopsy. Phenotype: Specimens were inoculated onto MacConkey agar containing ciprofloxacin using standard culture techniques to determine FQR status. Genotype: We compared cultures to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence typing (E.coli- ST131/H30/ST69) and bacterial plasmids (gyrA, qnrQ, and qnrS). The presence of FQR on this testing was compared to the second rectal swab collected just before biopsy (2 hours after ciprofloxacin prophylaxis), which served as the gold standard for FQR. Results: Overall, the FQR rate was 23.6%. The bacterial plasmids (qnr) were present in 54.1% of samples, and multidrug-resistant E. coli ST131 was present in 12.5% of samples. In comparison, phenotypic assessment using rectal culture had a better prediction for the presence of FQR as compared to genotypic testing [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.85 in phenotype arm vs. AUC = 0.45 in genotype arm]. Conclusion: We detected a high prevalence of FQR genes in the rectum, but the addition of PCR-based genotyping did not improve the prediction of culture-based FQR at the time of biopsy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-199
Number of pages6
JournalProstate International
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Biopsy
  • Hospital-acquired infection
  • Infection
  • Microbiome
  • Prostate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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