Molecular and cellular evolution of the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

Shaojie Ma, Mario Skarica, Qian Li, Chuan Xu, Ryan D. Risgaard, Andrew T.N. Tebbenkamp, Xoel Mato-Blanco, Rothem Kovner, Željka Krsnik, Xabier de Martin, Victor Luria, Xavier Martí-Pérez, Dan Liang, Amir Karger, Danielle K. Schmidt, Zachary Gomez-Sanchez, Cai Qi, Kevin T. Gobeske, Sirisha Pochareddy, Ashwin DebnathCade J. Hottman, Joshua Spurrier, Leon Teo, Anthony G. Boghdadi, Jihane Homman-Ludiye, John J. Ely, Etienne W. Daadi, Da Mi, Marcel Daadi, Oscar Marín, Patrick R. Hof, Mladen Roko Rasin, James Bourne, Chet C. Sherwood, Gabriel Santpere, Matthew J. Girgenti, Stephen M. Strittmatter, André M.M. Sousa, Nenad Sestan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


The granular dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is an evolutionary specialization of primates that is centrally involved in cognition. We assessed more than 600,000 single-nucleus transcriptomes from adult human, chimpanzee, macaque, and marmoset dlPFC. Although most cell subtypes defined transcriptomically are conserved, we detected several that exist only in a subset of species as well as substantial species-specific molecular differences across homologous neuronal, glial, and non-neural subtypes. The latter are exemplified by human-specific switching between expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine production in certain interneurons. The above molecular differences are also illustrated by expression of the neuropsychiatric risk gene FOXP2, which is human-specific in microglia and primate-specific in layer 4 granular neurons. We generated a comprehensive survey of the dlPFC cellular repertoire and its shared and divergent features in anthropoid primates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbereabo7257
Issue number6614
StatePublished - Sep 30 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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