Purpose: The current study compared the standard response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO), immunotherapy RANO (iRANO), and modified RANO (mRANO) criteria as well as quantified the association between progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in an immunotherapy trial in recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM). Patients and Methods: A total of 47 patients with rGBM were enrolled in a prospective phase II convection-enhanced delivery of an IL4R-targeted immunotoxin (MDNA55-05, NCT02858895). Bidirectional tumor measurements were created by local sites and centrally by an independent radiologic faculty, then standard RANO, iRANO, and mRANO criteria were applied. Results: A total of 41 of 47 patients (mean age 56 ± 11.7) were evaluable for response. PFS was significantly shorter using standard RANO compared with iRANO (log-rank, P < 0.0001; HR ¼ 0.3) and mRANO (P < 0.0001; HR ¼ 0.3). In patients who died and had confirmed progression on standard RANO, no correlation was observed between PFS and OS (local, P ¼ 0.47; central, P ¼ 0.34). Using iRANO, a weak association was observed between confirmed PFS and OS via local site measurements (P ¼ 0.017), but not central measurements (P ¼ 0.18). A total of 24 of 41 patients (59%) were censored using iRANO and because they lacked confirmation of progression 3 months after initial progression. A strong correlation was observed between mRANO PFS and OS for both local (R2 ¼ 0.66, P < 0.0001) and centrally determined reads (R2 ¼ 0.57, P ¼ 0.0007). Conclusions: No correlation between radiographic PFS and OS was observed for standard RANO or iRANO, but a correlation was observed between PFS and OS using the mRANO criteria. Also, the iRANO criteria was difficult to implement due to need to confirm progression 3 months after initial progression, censoring more than half the patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research