Modifiable risk factors to reduce renal cell carcinoma incidence: Insight from the PLCO trial

Jonathan Gelfond, Osamah Al-Bayati, Aashish Kabra, Kevan Iffrig, Dharam Kaushik, Michael A. Liss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Introduction: Identify modifiable factors contributing to renal cell carcinoma in the PCLO to target disease prevention and reduce health care costs. Methods: The prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian database were queried for the primary outcome of kidney cancer. Demographics were investigated, specifically focusing on modifiable risk factors. Statistical analysis includes the Student t-test for continuous variables, chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous and categorical variables for bivariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model was used in a multivariate time-to-event analysis. Results: We investigate existing data relating specifically to renal cancer. After missing data were excluded, we analyzed 149,683 subjects enrolled in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian trial and noted 0.5% (n = 748) subjects developed renal cancer. Age, male gender, body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension were all significant associated with renal cancer in bivariate analysis (P<0.05). Men have a significant increased risk of kidney cancer over women (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.58–2.16; P<0.0001). Nonmodifiable risk factors that are associated with kidney cancer include age (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01; 1.05, P = 0.001). Modifiable risk factors include obesity measured by body mass index (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02–1.07; P<0.0001), hypertension (HR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13–1.54; P = 0.0004), and smoking in pack-years (HR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02–1.07; P = 0.0002). Conclusions: Obesity, hypertension, and smoking are the 3 modifiable risk factors that could aggressively be targeted to reduce renal cell carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)340.e1-340.e6
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2018


  • Blood pressure
  • Body mass index
  • Hypertension
  • Kidney cancer
  • Lifestyle
  • Modifiable risk factors
  • Obesity
  • Prevention
  • Renal cancer
  • Renal cell cancer
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology
  • Oncology


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