MMP-9 reinforces radiation-induced delayed invasion and metastasis of neuroblastoma cells through second-signaling positive feedback with NFκB via both ERK and IKK activation

Dinesh Babu Somasundaram, Sheeja Aravindan, Ryan Major, Mohan Natarajan, Natarajan Aravindan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Neuroblastoma (NB) progression is branded with hematogenous metastasis and frequent relapses. Despite intensive multimodal clinical therapy, outcomes for patients with progressive disease remain poor, with negligible long-term survival. Therefore, understanding the acquired molecular rearrangements in NB cells with therapy pressure and developing improved therapeutic strategies is a critical need to improve the outcomes for high-risk NB patients. We investigated the rearrangement of MMP9 in NB with therapy pressure, and unveiled the signaling that facilitates NB evolution. Radiation-treatment (RT) significantly increased MMP9 expression/activity, and the induced enzyme activity was persistently maintained across NB cell lines. Furthermore, RT-triggered NFκB transcriptional activity and this RT-induced NFκB were required/adequate for MMP9 maintenance. RT-triggered NFκB-dependent MMP9 actuated a second-signaling feedback to NFκB, facilitating a NFκB-MMP9-NFκB positive feedback cycle (PFC). Critically, MMP9-NFκB feedback is mediated by MMP9-dependent activation of IKKβ and ERK phosphotransferase activity. Beyond its tumor invasion/metastasis function, PFC-dependent MMP9 lessens RT-induced apoptosis and favors survival pathway through the activation of NFκB signaling. In addition, PFC-dependent MMP9 regulates 19 critical molecular determinants that play a pivotal role in tumor evolution. Interestingly, seven of 19 genes possess NFκB-binding sites, demonstrating that MMP9 regulates these molecules by activating NFκB. Collectively, these data suggest that RT-triggered NFκB-dependent MMP9 actuates feedback to NFκB though IKKβ- and ERK1/2-dependent IκBα phosphorylation. This RT-triggered PFC prompts MMP9-dependent survival advantage, tumor growth, and dissemination. Targeting therapy-pressure-driven PFC and/or selective inhibition of MMP9 maintenance could serve as promising therapeutic strategies for treatment of progressive NB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCell Biology and Toxicology
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • MMP9
  • NFκB
  • Progressive neuroblastoma
  • Radiation therapy
  • Therapy pressure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Cell Biology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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