Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization for Subdural Hematoma: An Institutional Cohort and Propensity Score-Matched Comparison with Conventional Management

Georgios S. Sioutas, Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Fadi Al Saiegh, Kareem El Naamani, Abdelaziz Amllay, Andrea Becerril-Gaitan, Lohit Velagapudi, M. Reid Gooch, Nabeel A. Herial, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: The treatment of non-acute subdural hematoma (NASDH) is challenging due to its high recurrence rates and comorbidities of mostly elderly patients. Middle meningeal artery embolization (MMAE) recently emerged as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of NASDH. Objective: To describe a single center's experience of MMAE with Onyx for NASDH and compare it to a surgically treated historical cohort. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing MMAE for NASDH from 2019 to 2021. MMAE was performed with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Comparisons were made with a historical cohort from 2010 to 2018 who underwent surgical evacuation only, before and after propensity score matching. Outcomes were assessed clinically and radiographically. Results: We included 44 consecutive patients (55 MMAEs) who underwent MMAE, with a median follow-up of 63.5 days. Twenty-four NASDHs underwent upfront embolization, 17 adjunctive, and 14 for recurrence after prior surgical evacuation, with no significant differences in hematoma and mRS reduction between them. Two patients died during hospitalization and 2 during follow-up, unrelated to the procedure. Mean SDH thickness decreased by 48.3% ± 38.1% (P < 0.001) on last follow-up, which did not correlate with the amount of Onyx injected. Six (13.6%) patients required surgical rescue after embolization. There were no procedure-related complications. The mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on admission was 2.8 ± 1.5, which decreased significantly to 1 [1,4] at the last follow-up (P = 0.033). The MMAE (41 hematomas; upfront and adjunctive embolization) and Surgical Evacuation-only (461 hematomas) cohorts were balanced with propensity score mathing. Matching was successful for 41 MMAE and 41 surgical-only hematoma pairs, and only hypertension remained significantly different between the two groups, but there was no significant difference in any outcome. Conclusion: MMAE for NASDH seems safe and effective in appropriately selected patients, non-inferior to surgery, and may become a minimally-invasive alternative. Given our encouraging results, large-scale clinical randomized trials are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107895
JournalClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
StatePublished - Oct 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiography
  • Embolization
  • Middle meningeal artery
  • Minimally invasive
  • Subdural hematoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery


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