Microsphere and dilution techniques for the determination of blood flows and volumes in conscious mice

R. W. Barbee, B. D. Perry, R. N. Re, J. P. Murgo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

127 Scopus citations


Although the mouse is the most commonly used transgenic species, little is known regarding cardiovascular and fluid homeostasis in this animal. Therefore, the reference microsphere and dilution techniques were adapted for the measurement of cardiac output (CO), regional blood flows, and intravascular fluid volumes in the conscious mouse. Previously acclimatized C3H mice were studied 4-5 h after surgery and recovery from anesthesia. Approximately 40,000 85Sr-labeled microspheres were injected into the left ventricle while a reference sample was withdrawn at one of two rates from the femoral artery. 51Cr and 125I were used for the determination of blood volume (BV), plasma volume (PV), and F(cells) ratio (whole body hematocrit/large vessel hematocrit). CO and BV in the conscious mouse were 16 ± 1.4 ml/min and 2.3 ± 0.1 ml, respectively. Anesthesia lowered heart rate, blood pressure, PV, and altered the distribution of CO. Two successive injections of 15,000-20,000 microspheres were tolerated in the mouse without an increase in total peripheral resistance. The results indicate that the microsphere and indicator dilution techniques can be applied to study cardiovascular and fluid homeostasis in the mouse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R728-R733
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Issue number3 32-3
StatePublished - 1992
Externally publishedYes


  • blood volume determination
  • cardiac output
  • hematocrit
  • mammals
  • plasma volume
  • stroke volume

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Physiology


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