Metal ion homeostasis is an essential physiological mechanism necessary for achieving an adequate balance of these ions' concentrations in the different cellular compartments. This fact is of great importance because both an excess and a deficiency of cellular metal ion levels are usually equally harmful due to the exacerbated increase in oxidative stress that may occur in both cases. Metal ion homeostasis ensures an equilibrium among multiple functions associated with the body's antioxidative defense network controlled by metallic micronutrients such as zinc and copper, some of the central regulators of redox processes. These micronutrients significantly modulate the activity of some isoforms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and other enzymes such as metallothioneins (MTs) and ceruloplasmin (CP), which are directly or indirectly involved in the regulation of redox homeostasis. Although it is well known that both melatonin (MEL) and vitamin D have important roles as natural antioxidants, often some of these effects are related to their actions on antioxidative processes dependent on metal ions. Thus, in addition to their classical antioxidative properties usually associated with mitochondrial effects, it is known that MEL and vitamin D modulate the expression and activity of Cu/Zn-dependent SOD isoforms, MTs and CP; function as copper chelators and regulate genomic and non-genomic mechanisms related to the zinc transport. This review summarizes the main findings related to the crucial participation of zinc and copper in physiological antioxidative status and their relationship with the non-classical antioxidant effects of MEL and vitamin D, suggesting a potential synergism among these four micronutrients.
- Oxidative stress
- Vitamin D
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)