Insulin resistance is a nearly universal finding in morbid obesity. It may be compensated and latent or uncompensated with single or multiple clinical abnormalities. Although lifestyle interventions and medical measures alone may control most metabolic problems in the short term, the ultimate benefits of such an approach are usually limited by the complexity of available therapeutic regimens and the difficulty of maintaining full patient compliance. Many studies now document that bariatric surgery can effectively and safely control these complications in the short term and long term or even prevent their occurrence. Further investigations are needed to understand better the mechanisms involved and to define more clearly the appropriate indications and contraindications of the treatments proposed.
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