Melatonin inhibits neural apoptosis induced by homocysteine in hippocampus of rats via inhibition of cytochrome c translocation and caspase-3 activation and by regulating pro- and anti-apoptotic protein levels

G. Baydas, Russel J Reiter, M. Akbulut, M. Tuzcu, S. Tamer

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93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine causes neuronal cell apoptosis. We further investigated the mechanisms of melatonin's ability to reduce homocysteine-induced apoptosis. Consistent with its antioxidant properties, melatonin reduced homocysteine-induced lipid peroxidation and stimulated glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity in hippocampus of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. Furthermore, melatonin treatment diminished cytochrome c release from mitochondria and reduced caspase 3 and caspase 9 activation induced by hyperhomocysteinemia. Chronic hyperhomocysteinemia also led to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and subsequently DNA fragmentation. Treatment with melatonin markedly inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and reduced DNA damage. Hyperhomocysteinemia caused an elevation of pro-apoptotic Bax levels while reducing anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, levels. Daily administration of melatonin up-regulated Bcl-2 and down-regulated Bax levels. We propose that, in addition to its antioxidant properties, melatonin has the ability to protect neuronal cells against apoptosis mediated homocysteine neurotoxicity by modulating apoptosis-regulatory proteins in the hippocampus of rats.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)879-886
Number of pages8
JournalNeuroscience
Volume135
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2005

Fingerprint

Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
Homocysteine
Melatonin
Cytochromes c
Caspase 3
Hippocampus
Hyperhomocysteinemia
Apoptosis
Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
Antioxidants
Caspase 9
DNA Fragmentation
Glutathione Peroxidase
Lipid Peroxidation
DNA Damage
Mitochondria
Enzymes

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • DNA fragmentation
  • Hippocampus
  • Homocysteine
  • Melatonin
  • ROS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

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title = "Melatonin inhibits neural apoptosis induced by homocysteine in hippocampus of rats via inhibition of cytochrome c translocation and caspase-3 activation and by regulating pro- and anti-apoptotic protein levels",
abstract = "In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine causes neuronal cell apoptosis. We further investigated the mechanisms of melatonin's ability to reduce homocysteine-induced apoptosis. Consistent with its antioxidant properties, melatonin reduced homocysteine-induced lipid peroxidation and stimulated glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity in hippocampus of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. Furthermore, melatonin treatment diminished cytochrome c release from mitochondria and reduced caspase 3 and caspase 9 activation induced by hyperhomocysteinemia. Chronic hyperhomocysteinemia also led to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and subsequently DNA fragmentation. Treatment with melatonin markedly inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and reduced DNA damage. Hyperhomocysteinemia caused an elevation of pro-apoptotic Bax levels while reducing anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, levels. Daily administration of melatonin up-regulated Bcl-2 and down-regulated Bax levels. We propose that, in addition to its antioxidant properties, melatonin has the ability to protect neuronal cells against apoptosis mediated homocysteine neurotoxicity by modulating apoptosis-regulatory proteins in the hippocampus of rats.",
keywords = "Apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, Hippocampus, Homocysteine, Melatonin, ROS",
author = "G. Baydas and Reiter, {Russel J} and M. Akbulut and M. Tuzcu and S. Tamer",
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AU - Baydas, G.

AU - Reiter, Russel J

AU - Akbulut, M.

AU - Tuzcu, M.

AU - Tamer, S.

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine causes neuronal cell apoptosis. We further investigated the mechanisms of melatonin's ability to reduce homocysteine-induced apoptosis. Consistent with its antioxidant properties, melatonin reduced homocysteine-induced lipid peroxidation and stimulated glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity in hippocampus of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. Furthermore, melatonin treatment diminished cytochrome c release from mitochondria and reduced caspase 3 and caspase 9 activation induced by hyperhomocysteinemia. Chronic hyperhomocysteinemia also led to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and subsequently DNA fragmentation. Treatment with melatonin markedly inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and reduced DNA damage. Hyperhomocysteinemia caused an elevation of pro-apoptotic Bax levels while reducing anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, levels. Daily administration of melatonin up-regulated Bcl-2 and down-regulated Bax levels. We propose that, in addition to its antioxidant properties, melatonin has the ability to protect neuronal cells against apoptosis mediated homocysteine neurotoxicity by modulating apoptosis-regulatory proteins in the hippocampus of rats.

AB - In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine causes neuronal cell apoptosis. We further investigated the mechanisms of melatonin's ability to reduce homocysteine-induced apoptosis. Consistent with its antioxidant properties, melatonin reduced homocysteine-induced lipid peroxidation and stimulated glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity in hippocampus of rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. Furthermore, melatonin treatment diminished cytochrome c release from mitochondria and reduced caspase 3 and caspase 9 activation induced by hyperhomocysteinemia. Chronic hyperhomocysteinemia also led to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and subsequently DNA fragmentation. Treatment with melatonin markedly inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and reduced DNA damage. Hyperhomocysteinemia caused an elevation of pro-apoptotic Bax levels while reducing anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, levels. Daily administration of melatonin up-regulated Bcl-2 and down-regulated Bax levels. We propose that, in addition to its antioxidant properties, melatonin has the ability to protect neuronal cells against apoptosis mediated homocysteine neurotoxicity by modulating apoptosis-regulatory proteins in the hippocampus of rats.

KW - Apoptosis

KW - DNA fragmentation

KW - Hippocampus

KW - Homocysteine

KW - Melatonin

KW - ROS

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