The intracellular environmental is a hostile one. Free radicals and related oxygen and nitrogen-based oxidizing agents persistently pulverize and damage molecules in the vicinity of where they are formed. The mitochondria especially are subjected to frequent and abundant oxidative abuse. The carnage that is left in the wake of these oxygen and nitrogen-related reactants is referred to as oxidative damage or oxidative stress. When mitochondrial electron transport complex inhibitors are used, e.g., rotenone, 1-methyl- 1-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 3-nitropropionic acid or cyanide, pandemonium breaks loose within mitochondria as electron leakage leads to the generation of massive amounts of free radicals and related toxicants. The resulting oxidative stress initiates a series of events that leads to cellular apoptosis. To alleviate mitochondrial destruction and the associated cellular implosion, the cell has at its disposal a variety of free radical scavengers and antioxidants. Among these are melatonin and its metabolites. While melatonin stimulates several antioxidative enzymes it, as well as its metabolites (cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine), likewise effectively neutralize free radicals. The resulting cascade of reactions greatly magnifies melatonin's efficacy in reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis even in the presence of mitochondrial electron transport inhibitors. The actions of melatonin at the mitochondrial level are a consequence of melatonin and/or any of its metabolites. Thus, the molecular terrorism meted out by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is held in check by melatonin and its derivatives.
- free radicals
- mitochondrial complex inhibitors
- oxidative stress
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis