Melatonin and cannabinoids: mitochondrial-targeted molecules that may reduce inflammaging in neurodegenerative diseases

Sebastián García, Virna Margarita Martín Giménez, Feres José Mocayar Marón, Russel J. Reiter, Walter Manucha

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Generally, the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are associated with advancing age, so they are usually diagnosed in late adulthood. A primary mechanism underlying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases is neuroinflammation. Based on this background, the concept of "neuroinflammaging" has emerged. In this deregulated neuroinflammatory process, a variety of immune cells participate, especially glial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, receptors, and subcellular organelles including mitochondria, which are mainly responsible for maintaining redox balance at the cellular level. Senescence and autophagic processes also play a crucial role in the neuroinflammatory disease associated with aging. Of particular interest, melatonin, cannabinoids, and the receptors of both molecules which are closely related, exert beneficial effects on the neuroinflammatory processes that precede the onset of neurodegenerative pathologies such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Some of these neuroprotective effects are fundamentally related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions at the mitochondrial level due to the strategic functions of this organelle. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent advances in the study of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration associated with age and to consider the use of new mitochondrial therapeutic targets related to the endocannabinoid system and the pineal gland.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)789-800
Number of pages12
JournalHistology and Histopathology
Volume35
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology

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