Medical Complications After Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

Blessen C. Eapen, Sandra Hong, Bruno Subbarao, Carlos A. Jaramillo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Owing to the potential for prolonged length of stays, increased healthcare costs, and significantly increased risk of mortality, the secondary complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be recognized early and managed appropriately. Conditions such as spasticity, venous thromboembolism, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, neuroendocrine dysfunction, heterotopic ossification, nutritional deficits, and sleep disturbances can all negatively affect functional outcomes and community reintegration. Unfortunately, for most of these secondary complications, there is a paucity of evidence for treatment protocols in this unique population. The purpose of this chapter is to shed light on the current strategies for optimal management of secondary complications in patients with TBI and to raise awareness of controversies and limitations in practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationRehabilitation After Traumatic Brain Injury
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9780323544566
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Complications
  • Management
  • Neuroendocrine
  • Spasticity
  • Thromboembolism
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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