Mechanism of action of inhaled insulin on whole body glucose metabolism in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Rucha J. Mehta, Amalia Gastaldelli, Bogdana Balas, Andrea Ricotti, Ralph A. Defronzo, Devjit Tripathy

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4 Scopus citations


In the current study we investigate the mechanisms of action of short acting inhaled insulin Exubera®, on hepatic glucose production (HGP), plasma glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. 11 T2D (Type 2 Diabetes) subjects (age = 53 ± 3 years) were studied at baseline (BAS) and after 16-weeks of Exubera®treatment. At BAS and after 16-weeks subjects received: measurement of HGP (3-3 H-glucose); oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT); and a 24-h plasma glucose (24-h PG) profile. At end of study (EOS) we observed a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 215 ± 15 to 137 ± 11 mg/dl), 2-hour plasma glucose (2-h PG, 309 ± 9 to 264 ± 11 mg/dl), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, 10.3 ± 0.5% to 7.5 ± 0.3%,), mean 24-h PG profile (212 ± 17 to 141 ± 8 mg/dl), FFA fasting (665 ± 106 to 479 ± 61 µM), post-OGTT (433 ± 83 to 239 ± 28 µM), and triglyceride (213 ± 39 to 120 ± 14 mg/dl), while high density cholesterol (HDL-C) increased (35 ± 3 to 47 ± 9 mg/dl). The basal HGP decreased significantly and the insulin secretion/insulin resistance (disposition) index increased significantly. There were no episodes of hypoglycemia and no change in pulmonary function at EOS. After 16-weeks of inhaled insulin Exubera®we observed a marked improvement in glycemic control by decreasing HGP and 24-h PG profile, and decreased FFA and triglyceride concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4230
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019


  • Disposition index
  • Hepatic glucose production
  • Inhaled insulin
  • OGTT
  • Tracers
  • Whole body glucose metabolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Catalysis
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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