Background: Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is important in macrophage recruitment and activation. However, the magnitude and temporal sequence of MCP-1 expression in relation to tissue injury and regeneration following ischemic injury remains unknown. Materials and methods: Hind limb ischemia was induced by femoral artery excision (FAE) in C57Bl/6J mice; a sham surgery was performed on the contralateral leg. Muscle lysates were used to measure MCP-1 and activities of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and myeloperoxidase. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to localize inflammation and MCP-1. Results: FAE resulted in a prolonged period of ischemia and the administration of MCP-1 did not alter the restoration of perfusion. One day after femoral artery excision, extensive muscle necrosis and neutrophils were prevalent throughout the musculature of the lower leg. By 3 days, a mononuclear cell infiltrate predominated in association with robust muscle regeneration as indicated by myoD expression. Concomitantly, myeloperoxidase was maximally increased. Muscle enzymes (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) were maximally decreased within 3 days and returned to baseline levels by day 14, a time course consistent with injury and regeneration observed by histology. In parallel with these inflammatory and regenerative events, MCP-1 in muscle was maximally increased at day 3. By immunohistochemistry, MCP-1 was within vascular endothelial cells and infiltrating macrophages in areas of ischemic injury. Conclusions: The transient increases and selective tissue distribution of MCP-1 during early inflammation and muscle regeneration support the hypothesis that this cytokine participates in the early reparative events preceding the restoration of vascular perfusion following ischemic injury.
- collateral circulation
- monocyte chemotactic protein-1
- skeletal muscle regeneration
ASJC Scopus subject areas