Maternal obesity and increased nutrient intake before and during gestation in the ewe results in altered growth, adiposity, and glucose tolerance in adult offspring

N. M. Long, L. A. George, A. B. Uthlaut, D. T. Smith, M. J. Nijland, P. W. Nathanielsz, S. P. Ford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations

Abstract

We evaluated the effects of preconception and gestational obesity in the ewe on offspring growth, metabolism, and glucose homeostasis. From 60 d before conception through parturition, multiparous ewes were fed 100% (control; n = 8) or 150% (obese, OB; n = 10) of NRC (1985) recommendations. Ewes on the OB diet increased BW by 30% from diet initiation to mating (P = 0.03) and by 52% by d 135 of gestation (P = 0.04), whereas control ewes increased BW by 7% (P = 0.65) from diet initiation to d 135 of gestation. Lambs were weaned at 120 d of age and were maintained as a group. At 19.5 ± 0.5 mo of age, offspring from control and OB ewes were individually penned and subjected to a 12-wk ad libitum feeding challenge. At the beginning and end of the feeding challenge, dual x-ray absorptiometry was used to determine percentage of body fat, and a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) with minimal model analysis was used to assess insulin and glucose homeostasis. At the beginning of the feeding challenge, BW and percentage of body fat were similar for control and OB offspring, averaging 69.0 ± 1.5 kg and 5.3 ± 0.5%, respectively. At the initial FSIGT, glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity were reduced (P < 0.05) in offspring from OB compared with control ewes. During the feeding challenge, plasma concentrations of leptin were increased (P < 0.05) in offspring from OB compared with control ewes. Fasted plasma glucose before the feeding challenge tended to be greater (P = 0.06) in the OB offspring compared with the control offspring (83.3 ± 1.4 vs. 79.0 ± 1.6 mg/dL, respectively). At the end of the feeding challenge, fasted plasma glucose and insulin were increased (P < 0.05) in the OB offspring compared with the control offspring (84.0 ± 1.4 vs. 79.5 ± 1.5 mg/dL and 30.1 ± 2.1 vs. 23.4 ± 2.2 μIU/mL, respectively). During the feeding challenge, offspring from OB ewes consumed approximately 10% more feed (P < 0.05) and tended to have increased BW gain (approximately 14%; P = 0.08) compared with offspring from control ewes. At the final dual x-ray absorptiometry scan, percentage of body fat was greater (P < 0.05) for offspring from OB ewes than for offspring from control ewes (16.5 ± 1.2 vs. 10.8 ± 1.1%). At the final FSIGT, offspring from OB ewes had a decreased (P ≤ 0.05) acute insulin response to glucose, disposition index, and glucose effectiveness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have a decreased insulin sensitivity compared with offspring from control ewes. Maternal obesity induced before and during gestation leads to alterations in appetite, glucose and insulin regulation, and adiposity of mature offspring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3546-3553
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume88
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2010

Keywords

  • Glucose dysregulation
  • Maternal obesity
  • Obesity
  • Offspring appetite
  • Sheep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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