Managing community acquired pneumonia in the elderly–the next generation of pharmacotherapy on the horizon

B. Amalakuhan, K. Echevarria, M. Restrepo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Introduction: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially among the elderly. Antibiotic treatment for CAP in the elderly is particularly challenging for many reasons, including compliance issues, immunosuppression, polypharmacy and antimicrobial resistance. There are few available antibiotics that are able to address these concerns. Areas covered: After a systematic review of the current literature, we describe seven novel antibiotics that are currently in advanced stages of development (phase 3 and beyond) and show promise for the treatment of CAP in those over the age of 65. These antibiotics are: Solithromycin, Pristinamycin, Nemonaxacin, Lefamulin, Omadacycline, Ceftobiprole and Delafloxacin. Using a novel conceptual framework designed by the present authors, known as the ‘San Antonio NIPS model’, we evaluate their strengths and weaknesses based on their ability to address the unique challenges that face the elderly. Expert opinion: All seven antibiotics have potential value for effective utilization in the elderly, but to varying degrees based on their NIPS model score. The goal of this model is to reorganize a clinician’s focus on antibiotic choices in the elderly and bring attention to a seldom discussed topic that may potentially become a health-care crisis in the next decade.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1039-1048
Number of pages10
JournalExpert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jul 24 2017


  • CAP
  • Ceftobiprole
  • Lefamulin
  • Nemonaxacin
  • Omadacycline
  • Pristinamycin
  • San Antonio NIPS Model
  • Solithromycin
  • community-acquired pneumonia
  • pharmacotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology


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