Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis is an infection of the nasal epithelium and paranasal sinus mucosa, usually caused in children by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and, less frequently, group A Streptococcus species. The clinical diagnosis is based on daytime cough that may be worse at night or purulent rhinorrhea, or both, lasting at least 10 days, often worsening after a period of initial improvement after initial symptoms of the common cold, and often associated with facial or dental pain, facial fullness, or swelling, headache, and fever. Sinusitis is diagnosed clinically; radiographic evaluation is not indicated for diagnosis. When the disease persists despite treatment, or is complicated by potential intracranial or orbital extension, CT is the preferred imaging modality. Initial therapy should be amoxicillin in a high dosage (80-90 mg/kg/day). Treatment is generally for 10 to 14 days and for at least 7 days beyond the time of substantial improvement in symptoms. Complications of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children are rare.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health