Management and Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders: A Clinical Perspective

Edward F. Wright, Sarah L. North

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


A temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a very common problem affecting up to 33% of individuals within their lifetime. TMD is often viewed as a repetitive motion disorder of the masticatory structures and has many similarities to musculoskeletal disorders of other parts of the body. Treatment often involves similar principles as other regions as well. However, patients with TMD and concurrent cervical pain exhibit a complex symptomatic behavior that is more challenging than isolated TMD symptoms. Although routinely managed by medical and dental practitioners, TMD may be more effectively cared for when physical therapists are involved in the treatment process. Hence, a listing of situations when practitioners should consider referring TMD patients to a physical therapist can be provided to the practitioners in each physical therapist's region. This paper should assist physical therapists with evaluating, treating, insurance billing, and obtaining referrals for TMD patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)247-254
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2009


  • Dentistry
  • Physical therapy
  • Temporomandibular disorders
  • Temporomandibular joint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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