Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) activate naive T lymphocytes to induce adaptive immunity, effecting Th1 polarization through IL-12. However, little is known about other potential DC Th1 polarizing mechanisms, or how T cell polarization may be affected by DCs differentiating in, or exposed to, a proinflammatory environment. Macrophages (MΦs) are DC precursors abundant in inflamed tissues, lymph nodes, and tumors. Thus we studied the T cell-activating and -polarizing properties of MΦ-derived DCs (ΦDCs). Monocytes were cultured in MΦ-CSF (M-CSF) to produce MΦs, which were then differentiated into DCs following culture with GM-CSF plus IL-4. ΦDCs activated a significant allogeneic MLR and were significantly better than MDDCs in activating T cells with superantigen. Most strikingly, ΦDCs elicited up to 9-fold more IFN-γ from naive or Ag-specific T cells compared with MDDCs (with equivalent IL-4 secretion), despite producing up to 9-fold less IL-12. Neutralization of MDDC, but not ΦDC IL-12 significantly inhibited T cell IFN-γ induction. ΦDCs produced up to 12-fold more β-chemokines (macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α, -1β, and RANTES) than MDDCs. Ab blockade of CCR5, but not CXC chemokine receptor 4, inhibited T cell IFN-γ induction by ΦDCs significantly greater than by MDDCs. Thus DCs differentiating from MΦs induce T cell IFN-γ through β-chemokines with little or no requirement for IL-12. Myeloid DCs arising from distinct precursor cells may have differing properties, including different mechanisms of Th1 polarization. These data are the first reports of IFN-γ induction through chemokines by DCs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy