Lymphoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: Improved outcome and altered prognostic factors with combined modality therapy

Mark D. Logsdon, Chul S. Ha, Vivek S. Kavadi, Fernando Cabanillas, Mark A. Hess, James D. Cox

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BACKGROUND. Lymphoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is a rare presentation of extranodal lymphoma with a natural history that is not well characterized in this era of combination chemotherapy. The goals of this retrospective study were 1) to define the natural history of sinonasal lymphomas; 2) to compare the results of radiation therapy (XRT) alone with those of combined modality therapy (CMT) in the treatment of patients with lymphoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses; and 3) to define prognostic factors for each treatment. METHODS. Between 1947 and 1993, 70 patients with newly diagnosed lymphoma of the nasal cavity and paranasaI sinuses were treated. The Ann Arbor stages were: Stage IE: 42 patients; Stage IIE: 14 patients; Stage IIIE: 2 patients; and Stage IV: 12 patients. The distribution of T classifications of the primary tumors was as follows: T1: 2 patients; T2: 16; T3: 18; and T4: 34. Greater than 90% of the patients had intermediate grade lymphoma (Working Formulation), and none had follicular lymphoma. Twenty-eight patients received XRT alone, and 42 received CMT. RESULTS. The actuarial 5-year freedom from progression (FFP) and overall survival (OS) rates for the entire group were 57% and 52%, respectively. For patients with localized disease (Stages IE and IIE) receiving CMT, the actuarial 5-year FFP and OS were 83% and 67%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, treatment with CMT (P = 0.0005) and stage (IE vs. IIIE-IV) (P = 0.0001) were associated with improved FFP. In the group of patients receiving XRT, extent of disease (Stage IE, T1-3 vs. Stage IE, T4 vs. Stage IIE-IV) (P = 0.0001) was the only clinical characteristic associated with improved FFP in multivariate analysis. For patients receiving CMT, International Index (0 vs. 1-3 vs. 4, 5) (P = 0.0001) was the only significant factor predictive of improved FFP in multivariate analysis. One patient failed in the central nervous system (CNS) after initial therapy as a result of a radiation therapy marginal miss. CONCLUSIONS. In a Western population, patients with localized lymphoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses have a favorable prognosis when treated with CMT. FFP is significantly improved by treatment with CMT. For patients treated with XRT, extent of disease is the strongest predictor of outcome. International Index is the most significant prognostic factor for patients receiving CMT. Failure in the CNS is rare after initial therapy and is associated with local failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-488
Number of pages12
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 1997



  • Chemotherapy
  • Lymphoma
  • Nasal cavity
  • Paranasal sinuses
  • Radiotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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