Long-Term Inhalation Toxicity of Hydrazine. VERNOT, E. H., MACEWEN, J. D., BRUNER, R. H., HAUN, C. C., KJNKEAD, E. R., PRENTICE, D. E., HALL, A., Ill, SCHMIDT, R. E., EASON, R. L., HUBBARD, G. B., AND YOUNG, J. T. (1985). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 5, 1050-1064. Year-long intermittent exposures of rats, mice, hamsters, and dogs to hydrazine were conducted using concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, 1.0, and 5.0 ppm. Rats were held 18 months postexposure; hamsters, 1 year postexposure; mice, 15 months postexposure; and dogs, 38 months postexposure. Male and female rats exhibited dose-dependent incidences of benign nasal adenomatous polyps and smaller numbers of malignant nasal epithelial tumors after 1 year of exposure to hydrazine and 18 months postexposure holding. Nasal tumors were often associated with chronic irritation and were most frequent in male rats, with an incidence of greater than 50% in the highest exposure group. Hamsters exposed to 0.25-ppm and higher concentrations showed pathologic changes characteristic of degenerative disease, including amyloidosis. After exposure to 5.0 ppm hydrazine, hamsters developed a 10% incidence of benign nasal polyps compared to 0.5% in controls. Small numbers of colon neoplasms and thyroid parafollicular cell adenomas were found in hamsters, but only in the highest concentrations tested. Lung adenomas appeared to be marginally increased in mice exposed to 1.0 ppm hydrazine, the highest concentration tested in this species. No consistent clinical or pathological effects were seen in dogs during or after exposure to hydrazine at any concentration. Using amyloidosis as a criterion, a no-effect level was not achieved in hamsters. In rats, there appeared to be a marginal production of nasal tumors at 0.05 ppm, while mice showed no effects at 0.25 ppm. This study has demonstrated that the nasal respiratory epithelia of rats and hamsters are the most sensitive tissues to the tumorigenic action of hydrazine following inhalation exposures. This is similar to the reaction of rats to formaldehyde, another highly reactive water-soluble Compound.
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