Long-term estrogen replacement therapy in female patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type: 7 case reports

Takeyoshi Ohkura, Kunihiro Isse, Kenji Akazawa, Makoto Hamamoto, Yoshimasa Yaoi, Nobuyoshi Hagino

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145 Scopus citations


Seven female patients with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) were treated with long-term, low-dose estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) over a period of 5-45 months. Five of the 7 patients were cases who had responded well to short-term ERT with 1.25 mg/day of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) for 6 weeks. The 7 patients from 56 to 77 years of age received 0.625 mg/day of CEE for 21 days, followed by a pause of 7 days. A 28-day cycle of low-dose ERT was performed repeatedly. In 4 cases, these patients received 5 mg/day of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) during the last 10-12 days of estrogen treatment. Therapeutic efficacy of estrogen was evaluated by psychometric assessments such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) and a behavior rating scale of the Gottfries-Brane-Steen geriatric rating scale (GBS). The MMSE and HDS evaluations were performed principally once in 2-4 weeks. In 4 out of the 7 patients, the MMSE and HDS scores were elevated above the pretreatment levels during ERT. The termination of ERT resulted in a decrease in both scores. Furthermore, the GBS scores and daily activities of the same 4 patients were improved during ERT. In these 4 patients cognitive functions were markedly improved throughout the treatment period, while the other 2 patients responded moderately well and another patient did not respond at all. These observations suggest that long-term, low-dose ERT improves cognitive functions, dementia symptoms and daily activities in women with mild to moderate DAT. However, the supplemental treatment with MPA seems to have an unfavorable effect on dementia symptoms and daily activities in the aged DAT patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-107
Number of pages9
JournalDementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Long-term estrogen replacement therapy
  • Neuropsychological test
  • Progestogen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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