Local Therapy for Oligoprogression or Consolidation in High Mutational Burden Stage 4 Colorectal Cancer Treated With PD-1 or PD-L1 Blockade

Nicholas D. Klemen, Colin M. Court, Maria Clara Fernandes, Henry S. Walch, Walid K. Chatila, Lily V. Saadat, Steven Maron, Chris Crane, Jinru Shia, Andrea Cercek, Mithat Gönen, Nikolaus D. Schultz, Julio Garcia Aguilar, William R. Jarnagin, Michael I. D’Angelica

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICI) of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) can induce durable responses in patients who have colorectal cancer (CRC) with a high tumor mutational burden (TMB). Two recurring clinical dilemmas show how to manage oligoprogressive disease and stable disease after ICI. Methods: A cohort study was conducted to analyze patients with metastatic CRC who underwent PD-1 or PD-L1 blockade. Tumors were mismatch repair (MMR) deficient or had more than 25 mutations per megabase. Patients were identified who had local therapy (surgery, ablation, or radiotherapy) for one to three sites of progressive disease (PD) or surgery to consolidate SD. The study evaluated clinical and biologic factors associated with patient selection, outcomes, and pathologic response rates. Results: From 2014 to 2020, treatment was administered to 111 patients with ICI. Of these 111 patients, 19 (17%) survived fewer than 6 months, whereas to date, 50 have not had progression of disease. The remaining 42 patients experienced PD, and 16 (38%) were treated with local therapy for oligoprogression. Selection for local therapy was associated with response to ICI. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) after local therapy was 62%. Finally, 6 of the 50 patients without PD had consolidation of SD, and 5 had complete or near complete pathologic responses. Conclusions: Oligoprogression, a frequent pattern of failure after ICI, can be managed effectively with local therapy. In contrast, it may not be necessary to consolidate SD for selected patients. Further research is essential to define management algorithms better and to explore heterogeneity in response patterns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8373-8382
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of Surgical Oncology
Issue number13
StatePublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Surgery


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