Current prophylactic measures have greatly reduced recurrence rates of hepatitis B after liver transplantation. HBIG remains a critically important compound and although there is variability in dosing regimens and target antiHBs levels, it is the backbone of recurrence prevention. Adjuvant therapies with nucleoside/nucleotide analogs alone have been limited by drug-resistant strains of HBV, but the armamentarium of these molecules continues to grow and hence the management of the post-LT HBV patient will evolve further. Currently lamivudine with HBIG remains an excellent option provided the patient has not developed resistance, especially in the pre-LT period. Adefovir is the drug of choice in that setting and perhaps the preferred drug in the pre-LT setting to allow the use of lamivudine post-LT. Further testing with tenofovir and newer compounds in development will expand these options. The use of multiple nucleoside analogs is an intriguing option, based on the HIV experience of reducing drug resistance and optimizing viral suppression, and will likely be further studied.
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