Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) prepared from the suspected periodontal pathogens Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. a.), Bacteroides gingivalis, B. intermedius and Wolinella recta were compared to Salmonella typhimurium LPS for their capacity to stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release from human monocytes. Counterflow isolated monocytes were cultured with control medium or media containing 10 micrograms/ml LPS. Media were then exchanged every 24 hours for a total of 72 hours. Salmonella and Wolinella LPS preparations demonstrated seven-fold greater PGE2 release than B. gingivalis and two-fold greater than A. a. and B. intermedius. PGE2 release was found to decrease over time with all LPS preparations except Wolinella. The potency of the LPS preparations is tentatively ranked as follows: Wolinella greater than or equal to Salmonella greater than A. a. greater than B. intermedius greater than or equal to B. gingivalis. These findings demonstrate that LPS preparations from suspected periodontal pathogens are capable of stimulating PGE2 release from human monocytes. The high potency and prolonged stimulation of PGE2 release with Wolinella LPS suggests unusual toxic properties that may exert a greater influence in the pathogenesis of destructive periodontal diseases.
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