Lipidomics is a powerful approach that can provide quantitative characterization of hundreds of lipid species from biological samples. Recent studies have highlighted the value of lipidomics to study myelin biology. This chapter provides a detailed description for the application of multidimensional mass spectrometry shotgun lipidomics (MDMS-SL) to neuroscience research and particularly to the analysis of brain lipidomes with a particular emphasis on myelin lipids, from sample preparation to bioinformatics analyses. Sample preparation includes brain sample harvesting, homogenization, and lipid extraction. Lipid content is determined and quantified, in an unbiased manner and with wide coverage, using MDMS-SL. Overall, the approach described herein is applicable for whole brain tissue or specific brain regions (e.g., hippocampus, cerebellum), and is expected to yield new insights on various aspects of myelin biology and lipid metabolism.